Login | Member benefits | Join us
Researchers PDFs
AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
Contact Details

PO Box 138
273 Camberwell Rd
Camberwell, VIC 3124

Tel: 0437037613
Fax: 03 9882 6722
Login or Sign up now!

Latest News

Bayer Vegetables Forum
Read more here...

Agricultural Trailers
Read more here...

Food Safety Proposal For Comment
Read more here...

Supermarket Cuts Veg Prices
Read more here...

Green Snail Alert
Read more here...

VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables

Growers, packers and other sectors of the vegetable industry recognise that producing fresh, clean and safe products is a priority if markets are to be maintained and developed.

Quality assurance schemes have been introduced to help industry consistently manage quality.

However, in the area of postharvest hygiene, a lack of knowledge of contamination control and inconsistent interpretation of the regulations dealing with postharvest chemicals has caused a great deal of confusion.

This project report:

  1. clarifies regulatory requirements for postharvest chemicals

  2. provides comparative performance data and describe the factors influencing the performance of sanitisers

  3. discusses the implications for washwater re-use and safe discharge with the object of assisting growers and packers better manage postharvest hygiene.

Good Agricultural Practices for hygienic postharvest are described.

Robert Holmes
Paul Harrup

Clean & Safe Handling Systems for Fresh Vegetables & Tomatoes - 2003
Download 151kb


Our research demonstrated that sanitisers destroy up to 99% of harmful bacteria on fresh produce and totally eliminate bacterial and fungal pathogens from wash water.

However, the performance of washing systems depends on the quality of the supply water and the ability to control water quality in recirculated systems.

In particular, growers and packers may need to consider controlling the temperature, pH and organic load in their wash systems.

Another aspect of the project was to identify alternatives to chlorine and formalin as water and surface disinfectants respectively.

Chlorine dioxide, bromochlorine, ozone, peracetic acid, iodine, quaternary ammonia compounds, and non-chemical treatments were evaluated.

In partnership with manufacturers new hydrocooling and washing systems we developed and evaluated.

For many vegetable types, rapid establishment of the cold chain greatly reduces the risk of rots and microbiological contamination.

Workshops were held in five states to encourage the adoption of `best practice’ for hygienic postharvest and growers have been informed of project developments via a newsletter and booklet.

Regulation of sanitisers

  • Many growers have been confused about which sanitisers are legal to use in on-farm packing operations.

  • To some degree QA auditors and retail chains have contributed to this confusion by at times recognising only some of the legal sanitisers.

  • Growers and auditors need to be aware that chemicals supplied for postharvest washing, which claim to control spoilage organisms, either on the label or in the advertising material, are required to be registered with the NRA.

  • There are now 5 sanitisers for the postharvest washing of vegetables registered with the NRA.

  • There are also many general-purpose sanitisers excluded from the requirements of NRA approval (exempt).

  • These may be suitable for use on foods or for washing down equipment if they are approved for that purpose by Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

  • We recommend that further work is done to increase the awareness by all sectors of the vegetable industry of the NRA and FSANZ regulations

Selection of appropriate sanitisers

  • In clean water, pathogens were reduced by 4 to 6-log10 by most sanitisers. Fungi were more resistant to sanitisers than bacteria.

  • In dirty water, only peroxyacetic acid (2% v/v) and chlorine dioxide (2.5mg/L) achieved greater than 4-log10 reductions of the most resistant fungus.

  • BCDMH and calcium hypochlorite are the most cost-effective actives to sanitise relatively clean wash water.

  • Chlorine dioxide is a more appropriate water sanitiser for the washing of dirty vegetables or vegetables which contribute a high organic load, such as brush-polished carrots.

  • Prewashing dirty vegetables in unsanitised water before a rinse in sanitised water will be an option for some growers, depending on water availability.

  • However prolonged soaking of vegetables in dirty and unsanitised water to remove soil increases the risk of rots.

  • This risk is highest where the produce is warmer than the water or the produce sinks in the water and is therefore more subject to infiltration by contaminated water.

  • A newly registered water treatment system, which uses iodine as the sanitiser, was highly effective in relatively clean water. We are not yet able to make any judgement of it’s cost efficiency.

  • All sanitisers were affected by pH in the range 5.5 to 8.5. Growers may therefore need information and products to assist pH control.

  • Surfaces were more difficult to sanitise than water and proved reactive, depleting sanitiser levels.

  • Peroxyacetic acid was the most effective on surfaces and especially superior on wood.

  • Other sanitisers can be used but because of the depletion, larger volumes are required if used at label rates.

  • Non chemical alternatives should be developed and evaluated such as solar pasteurisation and biofiltration of water and heat treatments for contact surfaces.

  • The addition of surfactants to reduce the surface tension on the microbial cell wall, improving sanitiser uptake, deserves further study.

  • For sanitisers depleted by organic and mineral load, flocculation followed by filtration is an option to improve economy of treatment.

  • The technologies and their cost effectiveness should be investigated with the objective to assist growers reduce the consumption of both water and sanitiser.

  • For some sanitisers methods for pH management need investigation.

Recycling of used wash water

  • More work is required to develop water treatment technologies to enable the efficient use and safe reuse of washwater, minimising water consumption and water discharge.

  • Constructed wetlands may be functional, however many farms especially periurban farms do not have the required space.

General recommendations for hygienic postharvest

  • Wash vegetables only where there is a proven advantage.

  • Remove or trim off rotted plant parts before washing to minimise contaminating the wash water and remove trimmings from the grading/packing line as soon as possible.

  • Do not mix rotting produce with intact produce during harvest, handling or storage.

  • Clean and sanitise harvest, grading and packing equipment.

  • Test source water (and sanitise if contaminated) and sanitise recirculated wash and hydro-cooling water.

  • Maintain handling equipment so that mechanical damage to produce is minimised.

  • Encourage personal hygiene – provide clean toilet and hand washing facilities.

  • Cool chain reduces spoilage, but check for chilling injury in susceptible cultivars.

  • Monitor critical control points. Refer to Guidelines for On-Farm Food Safety (Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry-Australia 2001)

Effectiveness of technology transfer

  • We estimate that 480 growers, packers and others attended the workshops and a further 200 received the field day handbooks on “Managing clean and safe water for washing vegetables”. This is less than one tenth of the industry.

  • We anticipate that some messages will diffuse further, however there will be a need for advisers to maintain an awareness of hygienic postharvest principles and methods to assist industry in the future.

  • Many advisers need enhanced capabilities and resources to enable them to be effective consultants on these topics.

Other issues

  • The industry would benefit from a rapid test for microbial contamination.

  • Conventional tests (such as those used in this study) take several days and may not give an accurate assessment of the food safety status of stored vegetables.

  • For example, E. coli is very sensitive to sanitisers and therefore testing produce which has been sanitised, for the presence of this bacterium, may overlook the presence of other hazardous microorganisms.

Acknowledgments :

This project was funded by the Victorian Department of Primary Industries, the AusVeg levy, Horticulture Australia Limited, Queensland Fruit and Vegetable Growers (QFVG) – Tomato Sectional Group Committee; Northern Victoria Fresh Tomato Growers Association (NVFTGA); Avis Chemicals Pty Ltd, Wobelea Pty Ltd and Bioteq Ltd.

This project was commissioned by Horticulture Australia Limited with funds frrom the Vegetable R&D levy and the Victorian State Government..

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL's R&D activities.

Other key staff: Nam Ky Nguyen, Martin Mebalds, Dr Andrew Hamilton, Craig Murdoch; Institute for Horticultural Development, Knoxfield.

Grace Grech, Institute of Land and Food Resources, University of Melbourne

Lyn Jacka, Sally-Ann Henderson; Sunraysia Horticultural Centre, Irymple

Collaborators: Drs Alan McKay and Elaine Davison, Agriculture Western Australia Mark Hickey, Yanco Agricultural Institute, Yanco, New South Wales Helen Morgan, South Australian Research & Development Institute Craig Henderson, Queensland Department of Primary Industries

Industry Development Officers : Patrick Ulloa, David Ellement, Allison Anderson, Julia Telford and Craig Feutrill

^ Back to top    


Victorian Vegetable Industry - 2014

Summary of the location, structure, production and performance of Victoria's vegetable industry prepared by the Victorian State Government in 2014. In... Read more...

Site supporters
Web design Melbourne | Web Agent AUSVEG VIC 2018