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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG99057 Soil Health Indicators

This feasibility study was conducted to gather and examine as much data as possible on suitable indicators that relate to soil health, to gain a better understanding of their impact on crop yields.

Soils were collected from many different cropped and reference sites in major production areas over two crop growing seasons in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.

Soil health is a complex web of many interrelated soil properties that are influenced by climate, soil type and management practices.

In general, this study highlighted the great potential of quantitative analytical measurements for determining soil factors that impact on crop productivity and for defining the status of a particular soil in relation to a healthy soil.

Hoong Pung Jason Olsen
Marcelle Stirling Phillip Moody
Clive Pankhurst Steve Jackson
Mark Hickey Bill Cotching

Investigation of soil factors associated with the productivity and sustainability of vegetable production in Australia - 2003
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Impact of soil factors on crop productivity :

  • Capsicum and carrot crops were used as benchmark crops for this feasibility study.

    The study indicated that the types of soil factors and management practices that have major influences on crop productivity are crop specific and can only be used as indications for those crops that were studied.

  • Carrot production is directly affected by a decline in soil health, with impacts on both carrot root growth (carrot shape) and carrot susceptibility to soilborne diseases.

    Soil degradation, however, has less impact on capsicum production, because many of the adverse effects on root growth can be compensated for by intensive farm management practices that include soil fumigation, plastic mulching, multiple fertiliser applications and increased soil tillage.

  • As a result, this study also demonstrated that crop yields were not always influenced by soil properties that are closely related to soil health.

    Many resulting adverse effects of soil degradation, such as carbon depletion, poor water retention, decline in soil structural properties, and decline in beneficial soil organisms, can be compensated for.

  • The use of crop yield as a measure of soil decline can also be misleading, as yields can also be increased through the introduction of high yielding new varieties, salt tolerant varieties, an improved range of fertilisers, better disease and pest control, and improved technology in farm management.

    Therefore, when determining the long-term sustainability of crop production, we sometimes need to look beyond crop yield alone.

    High crop yield that can only be obtained through high farm inputs is not sustainable when weighed against the high costs in labour, agrochemicals, and water, and the on-site and off-site environmental effects.

  • A major challenge to vegetable growers and researchers will be to develop management practices that will reduce reliance on chemical inputs and ensure the effective use of water, while also preserving environmentally friendly land use for plant, animal and human health.

  • It is conceivable that in evaluating a cost benefit ratio, growers may have to consider lower yields for a lower cost farm input production system.

  • These are the issues that can only be addressed though long-term evaluations to identify and develop alternative options to the current intensive and high input management systems.

Indicators of soil health :

  • • The term “soil health” defines a soil’s resilience in sustainable productivity, maintaining environmental quality, and promoting plant, animal and human health.

    Realistic benchmark values for a healthy soil in each region could be obtained from non-cropped reference sites.

  • Potential soil health indicators can be broadly divided into two categories, in accordance with their functions.

    One category is akin to a building (soil structure, aggregate stability, penetration resistance, soil structure score) and the other is akin to building materials that will influence the quality of the building (organic matter, air pores, total microbial activities, fungi, bacteria, nematodes).

    This comparison highlights the importance of the latter in the overall health of a soil. • Soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and microfauna (nematodes) are particularly sensitive to organic matter quality and quantity, soil disturbance and management practices.

    Changes in other non-biological soil properties, such as total carbon, total nitrogen, soil aggregation, compaction, water holding capacity, soil pH and electrical conductivity will also affect these biological indicators.

    Therefore, these dynamic biological indicators could serve as an early warning system for practices that can affect soil resilience, and may provide a better understanding of changes in organic matter, and conditions in the soil ecosystem.

  • In general, higher levels of biological activities were recorded in the reference sites than in cropped sites, regardless of the different methodologies used.

    Hence, the different methods for determining soil microbial population and activities result in comparable conclusions and are indicative of changes in the soil environment.

    Useful methods identified in this study include nematode count, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, microbial biomass carbon, and PL-FAME analysis.

  • Unfortunately, apart from the general impact of disturbed soils (cropped sites) versus undisturbed soils (non-cropped pasture reference sites), the impact on these microbiological indicators by various crop management practices could not be properly assessed in this survey study.

    Long-term field trials of at least five years, involving replicated plots with different management practices, are required for comparative studies.

  • Soil carbon was identified as the basic and most important building component for a healthy soil, irrespective of soil type, region, or climatic conditions.

    Soil carbon impacts on many biological, chemical or physical soil properties.

    Some cropped sites in Tasmania and Queensland showed similar or higher soil carbon values compared to reference sites.

    This indicates that with good farm management practices, even with intensive land use for vegetable production, soil integrity and soil health can be sustainable.

  • Unfortunately, with so many variables between the different sites in this short survey study, it was not possible to identify what constituted good farm practices and sustainable land use.

Recommendations :

  1. This feasibility study established the potential of determining soil factors that impact on crop productivity and the use of potential soil health indicators.

    The full benefit of this study to the vegetable industry can only be realised with some follow-on work as listed below.

  2. At the very least, the production of a booklet on soil health for growers and industry use is recommended.

    Many of the concepts of soil health and explanations on how the various soil components influence soil structural integrity, as presented in this report, should be extended to the wider community in order to generate improved understanding of the relevance of the soil’s biological, chemical and structural properties.

  3. Conduct a review of available data on soils to produce a practical checklist or benchmark values and remedial steps that can be used on poor soils.

    This would provide an invaluable source of reference for the vegetable industry.

  4. Long-term studies, of at least 5 years, are essential to gauge the impact of different crop management practices on soil health and soil resilience.

    The identification of good farm management practices that conserve soil carbon, maintain soil health and crop productivity, even under intensive land use, will benefit many growers.

  5. Another major challenge will be to develop management practices that will reduce reliance on chemical inputs and increase the effective use of water, while also preserving environmentally friendly land use for plant, animal and human health.

    This may require the development of an economic benefit method that accounts for the overall farm inputs, effects on soil health and the cost to the environment.

Acknowledgments :

This project was funded by Australian vegetable grower levy funds through Horticulture Australia Limited.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL's R&D activities.

Support from participating capsicum and carrot growers in the project studies are also gratefully acknowledged.

We would also like to acknowledge Jason Olsen for his leadership in the project before leaving the team for another job in May 2002.

Larissa Bilston of R&D Extension Service is responsible for media releases and organising industry forums at Bowen and Bundaberg, and Doris Blaesing of Serve-Ag for facilitating the Devonport industry forum.

Researchers in Tasmania are also grateful to Susan Cross of Serve-Ag Research and Jamie Cooper of DPIWE for their assistance in field work.

We are also thankful to Mary Trebilco for proof-reading this report.

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