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Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
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Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
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VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
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VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test

A DNA-based forensic type test developed in Australia will provide vegetable growers with a valuable tool to help manage clubroot, one of the most costly diseases of brassica vegetables.

Clubroot is one of the most serious soil-borne diseases in the world, wiping out 10% of all brassica crops annually.

Control is difficult, expensive and often hard to target because there is no reliable and rapid detection method for Plasmodiophora brassicae, the organism that causes clubroot.

Designed for soil, water and plant material, this technology can be used to test fields to get a measure of potential yield loss due to clubroot, and to test water sources and nursery stock for possible contamination with the clubroot organism.

This 1999-2002 project delivered:

  • robust, rapid, accurate diagnostic clubroot test

  • new quantitative assays to predict crop disease before planting

  • new tools to accelerate soil-borne pathogen research

  • collaborative research between Natural Resources and Environment, VIC and Horticulture Research International, UK, to develop inexpensive on-farm test kits for clubroot and other soil-borne plant pathogens.
Authors
Robert Faggian Sarah Parsons
Ian Porter Caroline Donald
Ann Lawrie  

Quality Wash Water for Carrots and Other Vegetables - 2002
Download 177kb

Summary :

For the first time, a tool is available to the Australian brassica industry enabling the quantification of clubroot inoculum in soil.

This capability, together with information on factors such as pH, soil moisture content, varietal resistance, and others, will allow researchers to accurately predict the severity of disease in crops before they are planted.

Similarly, growers will be able to make informed decisions about potential disease management strategies, before planting.

The preliminary data presented here clearly demonstrates that real-time PCR can be used to accurately predict clubroot inoculum levels in the field.

The predicted risk categories correlate well with the actual clubroot scores observed in the corresponding field sites.

This is despite the fact that rudimentary dose-response data was used to assign the risk categories on the standard curve.

To gain greater accuracy, a comparison of different soil types would need to be carried in order to highlight the error that can be expected when assigning risk categories.

However, it may be preferable, and more practical for growers, to assign fewer risk categories, enabling a fail-safe integrated management option to be selected.

  • The diagnostic test, which has proved to be quick, reliable, accurate and able to detect minute quantities of the Plasmodiophora in soil, water and plant samples, has attracted world-wide attention.

  • This kit will enable growers to do preliminary on-farm tests which will indicate whether they need more accurate laboratory tests to determine the clubroot status of their farms.

  • The clubroot diagnostic assay developed in Australia is seen as the 'gold standard' for clubroot detection worldwide and Australian expertise is considered vital to the successful development of an on-farm kit. In brief,

Recommendations :

  • This project has developed the tools to enable growers to test their soil, water and planting material before planting.

  • This will limit the spread of clubroot in recently infected areas and enable growers to select appropriate management strategies.

  • Growers should use the diagnostic assay to form the basis of a testing regime for their farms and nurseries to ensure that the spread of clubroot is limited or stopped.

  • The commercial diagnostic test can rapidly predict the presence or absence of clubroot in soil, water and plant tissue,

    However, for quantitative prediction of disease to be accurate, further field monitoring is required - up until now, researchers have not had the tools at their disposal to measure soil-borne clubroot inoculum.

  • This project has delivered the necessary tools, and they will accelerate soil-borne pathogen research.

    It is important however that this situation be capitalised on, and the quantitative assay be commercialised.

    Extensive field monitoring will therefore be conducted in the final year of the national clubroot program.

    This data will be required to help validate that disease prediction is accurate in a range of soil types and under a range of climatic conditions.

  • The final benefit to growers is likely to come from the development of an inexpensive field test kit for clubroot.

    This work is currently underway in conjunction with Horticulture Research International (Wellesbourne, U.K.), a group with extensive experience in the development and use of on-farm pathogen test kits.

  • Currently, Australian vegetable brassica growers are the only ones with commercial access to a clubroot diagnostic procedure. This competitive advantage should be maintained and exploited for as long as possible.

Acknowledgments :

This project was commissioned by Horticulture Australia Limited with funds frrom the Vegetable R&D levy and the Victorian State Government..

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL's R&D activities.


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