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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
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Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
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Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus

This 1997-2000 project investigated the outbreak of Celery mosaic virus (CeMV) in celery and other related crops in Australia.

The main purpose was to gain a better understanding of what viruses were infecting our Apiaceous crops, what their host ranges were and how widespread the virus was.

Specifically this project determined the effects of virus on celery and carrots, and assessed alternative management strategies.

This study revealed that CeMV was indeed prevalent in all celery growing districts in Australia. It had severe affects on celery quality and production.

As part of a total management system for CeMV in celery, petroleum oil sprays and plastic reflective mulches were trialed.

Violeta Traicevski Bonny van Rijswijk
Alexei Rowles Angelika Ziehrl
Brad Rundle Jane Moran

VG97103 Management of celery mosaic virus
Download 516kb

Findings :

Two new potyviruses closely related to Celery mosaic virus (CeMV) have been found in the Apiaceae growing in Australia:

  1. Apium virus Y (APY)

  2. Carrot virus Y (CVY).

Although closely related to CeMV, they do not appear to readily move between plant species in the field.

CVY and CeMV are prevalent in Australia's major carrot and celery growing areas respectively.

The spread of CeMV in celery is linked to aphid pressure. High levels of CeMV in the field correspond with high aphid numbers in Spring and Autumn.

In carrots, virus can reduce yield (measured as weight), carrot length and carrot collar width, but it is dependent on variety.

However, virus had no effect on storage quality.

The five varieties assessed were: Senior, Leonore, Nantes, Steffano and Red Brigade.

Two alternative control strategies to help reduce the impact of CeMV were tested:

  1. petroleum spray oils

  2. coloured reflective mulches.

Both showed great promise.

The petroleum spray oil used in the trial delayed CeMV infection in the field and reduced CeMV infection overall.

Plastic reflective mulches were also effective in deterring aphids for landing in celery crops. Silver mulch was more effective than white which in turn was better than bare soil (Part 5).

Recommendations :

It is possible to manage the spread of Celery Mosaic Virus

1. Plant healthy celery seedlings in the field.

Seedlings sourced from outside the celery growing areas are less likely to be infected with CeMV.

In addition, future options for growers would be to test seedlings before they are transplanted out into the field, but this may be cost prohibitive.

2. Plant tolerant varieties.

At present, no resistant varieties are known, however further research is currently being undertaken by staff at IHD, Knoxfield to address this.

In the near future it is hoped that growers will be able to plant virus-resistant crops to combat both CeMV and CVY.

3. Plant new crops far away from mature crops.

This is a relatively simple and effective control method that can be implemented immediately by growers.

Growers need to be encouraged to allocate some time to reorganising their planting regimes to cater for this.

4. Plant celery seed beds far away from celery crops.

The longer the plants are in the ground the more likely the plants are to acquire virus.

Because aphids are more likely to feed on older more challenged plants they are more likely to acquire the virus from the celery seed beds and pass on the virus to other plants.

5. Control wild fennel and feral carrot on the farm.

The importance of controlling weeds which act as virus reservoirs as well as alternative food sources for the aphids is paramount in helping control the transmission of virus from weeds to crops.

This is a cultural control method that can be immediately implemented by the growers.

6. Plough in old crops and crop debris as soon as possible.

This too is another recommendation that can be immediately implemented by growers.

The sooner the plants are ploughed the less likely aphids will be to acquire the virus from the old crop and pass it on to the new crop.

7. Take a break in production

Studies from the US recommend at least 2-3 months.

The break in production will help break the cyclic effect of virus from one crop to another. This type of cultural control has proved to be very successful in South Australia and the US.

Although there seems to be no evidence available world-wide with regard to the seed transmissibiUty of CeMV this question has not been thoroughly addressed.

If CeMV and CVY are seed transmitted, implementing a certified seed program, together with all the cultural control recommendations above will help control the viruses in the Apiaceae.

Acknowledgements :

The assistance of the steering committee members, who provided constructive comments and information, is gratefully acknowledged. Members of the group were the Victorian Celery Growers Association, in particular Tom Schreurs, and Silvio Favero.

A large number of inpiduals provided support throughout the duration of the project allowing us to use field sites and gathering of important information.

We thank the following people:

    • Evita Alberts • Tim Burrell • Sandy Cochrane
    • Gazzolla Farms • Adrian Gibbs • Leo Kelly
    • Tony Kourmouzis • Rocco Lamattina • Russell Lamattina
    • Lindrea Latham • Anne McKenzie • Thomas Persley
    • Alexie Rowles • Brad Rundle • Len Tesererioro
    • Victorian Celery Growers Association • Calum Wilson

This project was commissioned by Horticulture Australia Limited and funded by the Vegetable R&D levy and the Victorian State Government..

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL's R&D activities.

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