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Hangzhou Foods
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
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Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
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Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
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VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
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VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials

The pest, currant lettuce aphid caused concern on its arrival in Australia in 2004 because it cannot be controlled by conventional, foliar sprays.

In a Horticulture Australia project in 2004-5 it was controlled in Tasmanian lettuce crops by farmland predatory insects.

The beneficial insects were harnessed by the grower using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) concepts such as sequential, adjacent plantings, looking before spraying and choosing selective or ‘soft’ pesticides as far as possible.

The predators entered lettuce hearts, ate the aphids and moved on before harvest. Insecticidal sprays failed because this pest lives deep inside lettuces unlike other aphids.

A few insecticides are systemic. They travel up the sap of lettuce if drenched around the roots. They kill aphids but not caterpillars. It is feared that their introduction will remove the ‘soft options’ for management of caterpillars.

Caterpillars and aphids share natural predators that die if they eat poisoned aphids - control of one pest does not integrate with control of another.

The use of systemic insecticides against aphids may require a return to hard chemistry against caterpillars. Other pests such as thrips that carry viruses, whiteflies and bugs also complicate the integration of control options.

Lionel Hill
Cathy Young
Paul Horne

Further developing integrated pest management for lettuce – Tasmanian commercial trials - 2006
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Findings :

  1. In 2004-5 Nasonovia-susceptible iceberg lettuce were grown to commercial standards near Devonport in northern Tasmania without the use of imidacloprid (Confidor®) seedling drenches (Project VG04067).

  2. The exposure of that success to industry maintained support for continued IPM development in lettuce (initially driven by caterpillar management) despite the appearance of a new pest, the currant lettuce aphid.

  3. That success did not lead to the immediate, widespread adoption of IPM in Tasmanian or mainland iceberg lettuce but IPM was successfully maintained and adapted by several Victorian growers in 2005-6.

  4. The success did not convince southern Tasmanian growers that IPM would cope with viral diseases transmitted by thrips (not usually an issue for northern Tasmanian lettuce crops) or with loose-leaf cultivars.

  5. The current project tested IPM in southern Tasmanians crops of both iceberg and loose-leaf lettuce on the farms of two of the three major growers in the state.

  6. Good results were obtained in southern iceberg lettuce although intolerable aphid infestation developed in waterlogged sections of the commercial crops such that these sections were bypassed at commercial harvest.

  7. Poor results were obtained in the loose-leaf crops attributable in part to these crops being 60% faster than iceberg crops.

    Predatory insects have less time to follow and overwhelm mobile aphids. There is less room for error in spacing and timing sequential plantings once supplementary sources of predators in the hinterland dry off.

    Planting intervals in the current trial were 2-4 weeks whereas one week is not only optimal but closer to commercial practice.

  8. IPM for iceberg lettuce has now been proven in several Tasmanian and Victorian commercial crops and could be recommended provided experienced IPM advisors supervise it.

  9. The introduction of bagging iceberg lettuce is distracting from the adoption of IPM in Tasmania.

  10. Iceberg growers still prefer a strategy based on resistant cultivars but fear that cool season temperate cultivars will be overlooked by commercial breeders.

  11. IPM for loose-leaf lettuce requires more empirical development. Provision of nursery vegetation for beneficial insects is impeded by 5 shortages of land in winter and complexities of weed and irrigation management. However, shorter (weekly) planting intervals are not only closer to commercial practice but also favoured by IPM theory.

  12. Loose-leaf growers still prefer a strategy based on resistant cultivars but require cultivars with broad seasonal performance to reduce the necessity for relabelling packages whenever cultivars change.

  13. Although a thrips-transmitted virus (TSWV) was feared as the major challenge to IPM in southern Tasmanian lettuce the greater challenge may be short crop duration. Also, growers still doubt whether the thrips/virus issue was addressed because they believe virus pressure was low in 2005-6.

  14. Currant lettuce aphid may be at an advantage over beneficial insects in cool temperate autumn conditions so that professional advice should be taken when extending IPM into autumn and winter.

Acknowledgments :

This project was supported by the National Vegetable Levy and growers Greg Fehlberg and Houstons Farms.

The following entomological staff of DPIW, Tasmania conducted the field observations, sampling and laboratory assessment of lettuce: Lionel Hill, Dr Cathy Young, Graeme Anderson, Wayne Williams, Kellie Gillespie and Michaela Young.

The following owners and staff at Houstons Farm, Richmond provided land, knowledge and resources to grow loose-leaf lettuce: Colin Houston, Dr Lee Peterson, Ricky Munford, Kate Smith and others.

Kate Smith also assisted greatly with field observations and crop records. 21 Greg Fehlberg, owner and operator at Brownwood Farm, Campania provided land, knowledge and resources to grow iceberg lettuce.

Dr Paul Horne and Jessica Page from IPM Technologies P/L provided key professional knowledge and commercial experience in vegetable IPM to the research team and to growers.

The national vegetable levy provided funds for seedlings and towards technical staff and travel for professional staff for this project.

Dr Sandra McDougall of the NSW Department of Primary Industries obtained project funding, provided liaison with Horticulture Australia Limited and AusVeg, professional advice and access to the Lettuce Leaf newsletter.

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