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Hangzhou Foods
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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Parsley Disease Handbook
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Phytochemical composition of food
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Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
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Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
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VG00013 Leek Diseases
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VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
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VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
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VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
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VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
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VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
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VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
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VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
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VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
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VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
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VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
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VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
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VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
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VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls

This report provides the results of research investigating the use of cultural control options that would encourage populations of key predatory insect and mite species that prey on pests of vegetable crops.

The target pests were primarily aphids and thrips. These are important groups for leafy vegetables as they include lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribis-nigri) and western flower thrips (WFT) (Frankliniella occidentalis), both of which are resistant to a range of insecticides. WFT is also an important vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.

In particular the project looked at whether or not certain plantings of non-crop plants could assist with pest control in leafy-vegetables.

Rye-grass was selected because we knew planting it could fit in with existing farm practice and it grew well at the time of year that it was required.

The project also investigated the potential of other management practices such as addition of composted fowl manure and using flowering weeds to augment populations of predatory and parasitoids insects and mites.

Once again, these practices were selected because they could fit in with existing farm practices and so could be easily adopted if successful.

Such a project could only be carried out on farms where IPM is being practised, and results will only be of value to farmers using an IPM approach. [Integrated pest management involves using biological and cultural control measures, supported where necessary by pesticides].

Several farmers in Werribee South and Cranbourne, in Victoria, agreed to take part in the trial and plant non-crop strips. All of the trials were on a whole paddock basis, not small plot trials.

Paul Horne Jessica Page

Development of cultural control methods for pests of leafy vegetables - 2008
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Findings :

It is clear that there are several useful cultural control measures that are practical, that vegetable growers can use to encourage beneficial insects and mites.

That is, the cultural and biological components of an IPM strategy can be strengthened. This project has demonstrated that it is possible to use insectary plantings and made a part of normal vegetable production methods.

The use of composted organic material was also shown to increase populations of soil-dwelling predatory insects and mites. The beneficial insects and mites that are encouraged by these different methods fall into two categories, transient and resident.

The strip plantings of cereals attract transient brown lacewings (M. tasmaniae) as they are dispersing through vegetable production areas in spring. They will stop in these strips but not in a bare paddock, and so it is a means to increase the population of predators on a paddock going into vegetable production.

The organic composts can be used to increase the populations of resident soil dwelling predators. The cultural control component of IPM is often given less emphasis than the biological or chemical components but this project has shown that it provides the basis for control of 17 key pests.

There are many different types of cultural controls that are available to farmers that are beyond the scope of this project but many are site or crop-specific. This work has focussed on methods to increase populations of beneficial invertebrates.

Providing a suitable habitat for predatory species increases the role of both the resident and transient biological control agents. Planting insectary crops has also the added benefit of helping make growers aware of the broader approach to controlling pests by deliberately acting to encourage beneficial species.

It is therefore a good starting point for those just adopting IPM, to emphasise the importance of cultural controls within an IPM strategy. There is also potential for certain existing flowering weeds to be used to increase populations of beneficial insects by providing pollen and nectar.

The situation that exists in areas such as Werribee South is that on land adjacent to crops that is usually not owned or managed by the farmer, there are often flowering weeds of different species. Management of these is restricted to limited herbicide applications which can result in bare ground or poor control of established weeds.

Replanting these strips of land with native plants may be desirable (see Revegetation by Design Project) if particular species can be recommended, but no local species have been trialled in this area and it is currently not achievable by the grower, and is not a priority for them.

This especially relevant for farmers leasing land on a short-term basis. We suggest here that there is scope to utilize some existing flowering weeds in preference to attempting to achieve bare earth.

The main concern is whether or not certain species of weeds will also encourage pests or be a reservoir of disease. Therefore, in brassica production areas brassica weeds would not be suitable but aniseed weed could be ideal.

However, in celery production areas aniseed weed could harbour celery mosaic virus and so would not be suitable. The observations in this project have been that there are often large strips of flowering weeds on land adjacent to crops anyway, but that some of them could be considered useful rather than just weeds. WFT Control.

The studies on WFT in lettuce crops showed that this species was surviving a range of insecticides, including drenches of imidacloprid. It was present in both IPM grown and non-IPM crops but in all sites studied the numbers of WFT never increased in IPM crops.

WFT has been present in Victoria for many years but in Werribee South now has the potential to cause serious problems.

The small number of IPM lettuce sites available makes firm conclusions difficult, but the results are consistent with the hypothesis that a range of predators, both resident and transient, are present in IPM crops and are preying on WFT, giving control. In the non-IPM crops the number and range of predators is much less and WFT populations have increased. The naturally occurring predators are able to deal with WFT and we suggest that they have been doing so for many years.

So there is no requirement to attempt to commercially rear and release these predators outdoors but simply not to kill them where they occur. It is much easier to avoid problems with WFT than to have to deal with this pest when it is in high numbers.

Similarly, there is no need to develop specific strategies for WFT. It is dealt with through an effective IPM strategy covering all pests in leafy vegetables.

Acknowledgments :

This study was funded by Horticulture Australia Limited and AusVeg.

We thank all of the farmers that collaborated in this project, especially Tom and Theo Schreurs (J & JM Schreurs and Sons); Darren Schreurs (Peter Schreurs and Sons); Paul Gazzola (Gazzola Farms); John Fabbian; Paul Samarges; Andrew and Joseph Fragapane (Fragapane Farms); Jim Pateras; and Stan and Fred Velisha (Velisha Bros.), Con and Adam Ballan.

We thank Dr. Jenny Beard (AQIS) for mite identification and Kate Lorey for conducting laboratory trials

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