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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg

The concentration of nitrate and nitrite in a vegetable reflects its food safety, quality and even how efficiently fertiliser was used in the production of that vegetable.

Vegetables provide the majority of nitrate found in the diet. Leafy vegetables tend to have a higher nitrate concentration than other vegetable types such as root or fruit vegetables.

Further, leafy vegetables can accumulate nitrate beyond levels that are optimum for plant growth. Once eaten, nitrate can be reduced to nitrite in the body and can combine with amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines that are associated with gastric cancer.

Public health concerns about high nitrate and nitrite in vegetables have led some countries to set limits on these compounds in vegetables.

This project assessed the levels of nitrate and nitrite occurring in Australian produced leafy vegetables and the production factors that impact on these.

A survey of leafy vegetables available on the market was conducted over a one-year period with vegetables obtained from different growing areas in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria.

Greenhouse experiments were then carried out at the NSW Department of Primary Industries Gosford Horticultural Institute investigating how light and nitrate fertiliser affect the concentration of nitrate in a range of leafy vegetables.

Authors :
Sophie Parks
David Huett
Lindsay Campbell
Lorraine Spohr
Joshua Jarvis

Nitrate and Nitrite in Australian Leafy Vegetables
Download 284kb

Key Findings :

  • This project has successfully determined the range of nitrate and nitrite in some Australian of leafy vegetables and some of the production factors that affect nitrate accumulation in vegetables.

  • The survey clearly demonstrated that Australian leafy vegetables generally have a low concentration of nitrite but that 27% of samples had accumulated nitrate, leafy Asian vegetables in particular.

  • It was demonstrated that nitrate supply is the key factor controlling the accumulation of nitrate in harvestable shoots. Light conditions in Australia, even in protected situations such as under shade, are not reduced enough to exacerbate nitrate accumulation.

Researcher Dr. Sophie Parks
Effective on-farm fertiliser management programs hold the key
to controlling the nitrate concentration in vegetables

Key Findings (cont):

  • Asian vegetables are particularly susceptible to nitrate accumulation, compared with other leafy vegetables, when supplied with excessive amounts of nitrate. This would apply generally to leafy vegetables of the Brassicaecae family, to which most Asian leafy vegetables belong. Rocket, the other Brassicaceae member investigated in the project, also had very high nitrate concentrations, particularly at the high supply of nitrate.

  • For Australia, management of nitrate accumulation in vegetables will be achieved through the efficient use of fertilisers in production. A.limitation to this is that growers currently do not have the tools to easily manage nitrate in Asian vegetable crops.

  • Nitrate accumulation is associated with an excessive supply of nitrate fed to crops and could be avoided with better fertiliser management practices. Vegetables of the Brassicaceae family, in particular many Asian leafy vegetables, are prone to nitrate accumulation.

SEE ALSO :

Article by Graham Gosper - Vegetables Australia May/June  (2007)

VG08020  Optimising water & nutrient use  (2010) 

Acknowledgements :

The project team wishes to thank and acknowledge the financial contribution and support of NSW Department of Primary Industries, Horticulture Australia Limited and AusVeg.

We thank Lavinia Zirnsak of the Victorian Department of Primary Industries and Brad Giggins of Applied Horticultural Research for kindly organising vegetable samples from Victoria and Queensland for the project survey.

We thank Mike Titley, also of Applied Horticultural Research, for providing samples during the development of the project and for providing us with valuable contacts.

We thank Dr Bill Carlile (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom) and Dr Ray Cerkauskas (Agriculture and Agri-food Canada) for valuable discussions and information about nitrate nutrition physiology.

Also, we would like to thank Dr Doris Blaesing (Serve-Ag Analytical Services, Tasmania) for a very helpful discussion on sap nitrate testing.

We thank Sue Forster, Craig Hunt, Murali Samithamby and Glen Rangott of Diagnostic and Analytical Services, Wollongbar (NSW Department of Primary Industries), for assistance with method development and for sample analyses.

This project has been facilitated by the New South Wales State Government and Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) in partnership with AUSVEG through the National Vegetable Research and Development Levy.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.


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