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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG00084 Beetroot for Processing

Soilborne fungal diseases threaten the viability of the Australian processing beetroot industry.

The disease problems have been exacerbated in recent years because crops are now grown virtually year round, and under environmental conditions that favour disease outbreaks.

The long beetroot growing-window has reduced the opportunity for farmers to rotate out of beetroot and if rotations are completed, they are generally only short, which further increases the disease problems.

The Lockyer and Fassifern valleys of south-east Queensland supply approximately 90% of Australian processed beetroot.

There are many factors that stand in the way of profitable, efficient production but an important one for this industry is crop establishment problems and quality reductions due to soil-borne diseases.

In recent years soil-borne diseases (Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Aphanomyces) have been reported to cause substantial yield and quality reductions, particularly in crops grown at the extremities of the growing season.

These pathogens can result in poor stand establishment and may give rise to poor quality, misshapen beets

This report summarises the results of a four-year study investigating yield and quality decline in Australian processing beetroot crops.

It provides information on the identification and management of soil-borne fungal diseases of beetroot and identifies prospective beetroot varieties that may be used as alternatives to the varieties currently grown by the industry.

Authors
Heidi L. Martin Scott Boreel
Eric Coleman Bob Davis
Peter Scholl Vicki Hamilton
John Zillmann Dominic Bassi
Jon Carmichael

VG00084 Improving the reliability and
consistency of processing beetroot production - 2004
Download 349kb

Summary :

The soilborne fungal diseases currently jeopardising the Australian beetroot industry are not unique to Australia.

The fundamental issue that has lead to an increase in prevalence of soil-borne diseases in this industry has been the extension of the growing window into periods of high disease risk.

As a consequence of this extended growing window, growers, particularly those with smaller farms, have less opportunity to rotate out of beetroot, or if they are able to rotate it is only for short periods.

The result is a continual increase in the quantity of disease inoculum in the beet soils and heavy losses due to disease, particularly in crops planted during periods of high disease risk.

This project has identified several tactics that will assist the beetroot industry to better manage its soilborne diseases and improve the quality of its product.

  1. Rhizoctonia and Pythium are the most important soilborne fungal pathogens responsible for disease outbreaks on farms throughout the beet-growing areas of south east Queensland.

  2. The three most common disease-causing Pythium species differ in their abilities to cause disease on plants of different ages and only cause disease at certain temperatures.

    Consequently, there is the opportunity to reduce disease losses by manipulating when blocks dominated by particular species are planted.

    For example, since Pythium aphanidermatum is highly pathogenic to very young plants at temperatures greater than 15 degrees C, blocks in which this pathogen predominates should not be planted early in the season.

  3. Fungicideshave been identified that will help reduce disease losses. A combination of Apron and Rizolex WP will give significant disease control and for best results, it should be applied as a slurry to seed.

    Although promising in initial field trials, Tachigaren would appear to be of limited use in beetroot because it slows germination and may inhibit it completely if applied at high rates.

    We obtained a minor use permit for Rizolex as a seed dressing or in-furrow treatment for beetroot. Additional residue and efficacy trials must be completed for Rizolex for this permit to be extended beyond 2005.

  4. Glasshouse studies we identified prospective crops that if grown in rotation with beetroot do not promote further disease inoculum build-up.

    Barley and Dolichos were the poorest hosts of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia of 22 crop types assessed.

    Therefore, they may be useful as rotational crops at sites with mixed infections of both pathogen types.

    These glasshouse studies should be verified in field trials in a future research program.

  5. More than 90 different beetroot varieties have been assessed and prospective alternatives to the three current standard lines have been identified.

    Detroit Dark Red, one of the industry standards was consistently a very poor performer in our trials, leading the project team and the industry to speculate that seed companies are no longer maintaining this open-pollinated variety.

    A seed production and improvement program for the open-pollinated lines has commenced with Henderson Seeds as a direct consequence of our research.

    This industry would also benefit by switching to monogerm beet types. We demonstrated a clear inverse relationship between plant spacing and the quantity of misshapen material produced.

    The current standard varieties are all multigerm types. With multiple shoots arising from each seed cluster, the plants encroach on each other as they grow, increasing the quantity of misshapen material and reducing recovery at the cannery.

    With monogerm seed, the quantity of misshapen product is reduced, because plant spacing can be controlled.

    Monogerm beet seed is significantly more expensive than that of the standard lines, however the economic gains associated with improved quality should far outweigh the increased initial cost.

Acknowledgements :

I would like to extend sincere thanks to the project team members, in particular, Scott Boreel, Vicki Hamilton, Peter Scholl, Eric Coleman and Bob Davis for their hard-work and dedication to this project.

Assistance from Peter Case, Gerry Macmanus, Sandra Dennien, Carolyn Lee, Russell McCrystal, Belinda Bowe and Amanda Love in planting, harvesting and assessing field trials is also gratefully acknowledged.

I also wish to thank Craig Henderson for developing the original project proposal for submission to HAL.

The work done by Dr Paul Scott (The University of Queensland) in identifying the species of pathogenic Pythium isolates added an additional dimension to the work which contributed enormously to the project outcomes. We are extremely grateful to Paul for his efforts and his willingness to collaborate with us.

Considerable in-kind contributions were provided from seed and chemical companies. We are thankful to Barry Donahoe (Syngenta), Difang Chen (Alf Christianson Seed Co.), David Commens (SPS), Tim Lewis and Andrew Henderson (Henderson Seeds), Wayne Hoey (Le Froy Valley), Michael Sippel (Yates), Paul Hesseltine (Bejo), and Ole Johansen (Daehnfeldt), for their contributions.

We also thank Rob Vitelli (Bayer), Chris Stuart (Sumitomo Australia Ltd), Patrick Press (Sumitomo Chemical Australia P/L), Tanya Middeldorp (Uniroyal Chemical), Natalie Rose (Syngenta Crop Protection P/L) and Matthew Gilmore (Barmac Industries) for supplying us with fungicides to trial.

John Hunt and Rob Stanic (Agrimm P/L), Steve Capeness (Vermitech), Alan Mudford (Wrightson’s Seeds), Richard Armstrong (Enviroganics P/L), Peter Thompson (Terra Firma Fertilisers) and Peter Stewart (Pacific Seeds) all provided in-kind contributions for the organic amendments and crop rotation trial, and their contributions are appreciated.

We thank Shane Litzow for taking the time to fix his metham applicator and fumigating the site for the organic amendments and crop rotation trial.

The beetroot growers of the Lockyer Valley contributed enormously to this work by providing us with sites on their farms to establish field trials, and by maintaining the trials from planting through until harvest.

Specifically we wish to thank Merv Neumann, Peter Voight, Linton Brimblecombe, Tim Pocock, Glenn Lerch, Ashley Zelinski and Peter Lerch.

This project has been facilitated by Queensland State Government and Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) in partnership with AUSVEG and has been funded by the National Vegetable Research and Development Levy and Golden Circle P/L.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.


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