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Hangzhou Foods
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
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Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
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VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
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VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
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VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
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VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
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VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
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VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
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VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
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VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
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VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
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VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
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VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
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VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
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VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols

This is the final report for project VG00048 which covers research into the biological and chemical control of Sclerotinia lettuce drop (SLD) and the use of soil amendment and cultural strategies for the integrated control of Sclerotinia diseases.

Sclerotinia diseases are a major cause of crop loss in horticultural crops (eg. lettuce, beans, carrots, crucifers, peas and others) despite the widespread use of fungicide sprays.

In some regions of Victoria and Tasmania, where lettuce are sown every year, high losses Sclerotinia minor lettuce drop (SLD) ranging from 10 to 45% were reported by growers despite the use of a regular fungicide spray program.

Inconsistent chemical control and increasing public concerns over fungicide residue levels were major issues of concern to the industry and therefore this project was funded to find alternatives which gave more sustainable control of Sclerotinia diseases.

This project examined the effectiveness of well developed biological control agents for reducing inoculum and controlling disease, and compared a range of application methods to improve their efficacy using lettuce as a model system.

The project evaluated strategic application of fungicide treatments for control of sclerotinia disease on lettuce and beans. Soil amendment strategies were also evaluated in combination with the use of registered chemicals and cultural strategies examined for their potential to reduce disease pressure and improve SLD control.

The overall aim of the project was to provide growers with new options for the integrated control of Sclerotinia diseases and better inform them of the most appropriate use of fungicide treatments for disease control in their farms.

Authors
Oscar Villalta Ian Porter
Tuula Launonen Denise Wite
Hoong Pung Susan Cross
Alison Stewart Nimal Rabeendran
Kirstin McLean John Hunt

Development of Biological Controls for Sclerotinia Diseases of Horticultural Crops - June 2004
Download 418kb

Outcomes :

  1. Control of SLD was improved in farms by 80 to 96% with the use of new strategic application of procymidone (sold as Sumisclex™ or Fortress™) sprays. Improved application can improve its efficacy and therefore growers are advised to modify their fungicide application methods for maximum disease control.

  2. The new fungicide BAS 510 (BASF – boscalid) was shown to be as effective as procymidone in controlling SLD and bean white mould and therefore it has the potential to replace procymidone or for use in alternation with procymidone.

  3. The treatment of seedling growing mixes in nurseries was the most effective method for delivering Trichoderma biocontrol agents into a seedling transplant system.

    Two commercial composted pine bark mixes were identified as suitable substrates to incorporate Trichoderma.

  4. In the field, biocontrol treatments did not give the same consistent and effective control of SLD provided by fungicide treatments and were not effective in reducing inoculum in soil.

    This was due to the inability of biocontrol agents (BCAs) to establish in soil at levels considered optimal for effective biocontrol.

    A better understanding of the compatibility of BCAs with farm practices (eg fertilisers, pesticides) and soil characteristics (eg organic matter) conducive for maximum growth of BCAs is required to improve the field efficacy of biological treatments.

  5. BQ-Mulch (green manure crop) used in rotation with lettuce in a Tasmanian soil reduced Sclerotinia disease by suppressing infection and improved soil characteristics.

  6. Seedlings of onions, beets and spinach, which have upright foliage, were less susceptible to Sclerotinia infection and therefore can be selected for crop rotations in high Sclerotinia pressure sites.

Acknowledgements :

There were many people and organisations that provided assistance to make this research possible. They include:

  • Susan Pascoe, Barbara Czerniakowski, Rosa Crnov and Peta Easton (PIRVic, DPI Vic) for their invaluable assistance in conducting laboratory and field work and in compiling data. Nigel Crump for advice on soil amendments and Craig Murdoch for technology transfer.

  • Field trials at Cambridge and Margate in southern Tasmania were conducted with the assistance of Dennis Patten and Lee Peterson, Serve-Ag staff based in Hobart. Other Serve-Ag staff who also assisted in this project were Peter Aird and Sarah Lamprey.

  • Mark Shakelton at CSIRO Entomology, Perth, conducted plant analysis for isothiocyanates in brassica green manure tissues.

  • The staff at the PIRVic, Department of Primary Industries, Knoxfield for their assistance in establishing and harvesting field trials.

  • The lettuce growers in Victoria and Tasmania who graciously allowed trials on their farms and provided assistance in their establishment, maintenance and harvest.

  • The commercial nurseries in Victoria and Tasmania which graciously produced seedlings for trials and allowed experiments on their glasshouses and provided assistance in their establishment and maintenance.

  • Biometricians Graham Hepworth and Nam Nguyen for their input into trial design and data analysis.

  • Agrochemical companies for providing samples of fungicides and other companies for supplying biocontrol products for laboratory, glasshouse and field work.

  • The authors thank the members of the advisory group, Kon Koroneos, Stan Velisha, Frank Ruffo for their valuable contribution to this project.

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