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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG00044 Total Clubroot Management

The Australian horticultural brassica industry grows produce valued at $134 million annually.

Broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage are the major brassica vegetable crops. Minor crops include Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage and Asian brassica vegetables.

Clubroot is the most serious soilborne disease affecting brassicas world wide. It is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, an obligate biotrophic parasite. Currently considered to belong to the Protoctista, it is neither plant, animal nor fungus.

Clubroot was first reported in Australia in 1890. It is likely to have been brought into the country with the early settlers as diseased planting material, although fodder or grazing animals represent an alternative source of contamination.

Recent increases in the prevalence of this disease can be associated with the increased use of transplants, narrow rotations, more extensive cropping on the same soil (in some cases, 4 crops per year) and the suspected increased movement of the pathogen on trucks, bulk bins and other farm equipment.

Surveys have shown that over 70% of brassica properties in Victoria are affected by clubroot.

Crop losses of up to 25 hectares/property have been reported and total national crop loss is estimated at between 5 and 10% of brassica production.

Clubroot is endemic in most of the major production regions of Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. Outbreaks have occurred in Stanthorpe (Queensland in 1997), Gatton, (Queensland in 2001) and Manjimup (Western Australia in 1993).

Clubroot is now a significant problem in every state of Australia.

Authors
Caroline Donald
Ian Porter
Josie Lawrence
Barbara Czernaikowski
Rachel Lancaster
Dean Metcalf
Leigh James
Peter Stephens
Shane Dullahide

VG00044 total clubroot management extract
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Symptoms of disease are restricted to members of the family Cruciferae.

Infection can occur at any stage of growth and is restricted to the roots.

Infected roots swell forming characteristic galls that may either be large and compact or numerous irregular swellings, depending upon the timing and severity of infection.

Infected plants are nutritionally impaired as galled roots have a reduced capacity to assimilate water and nutrients from the soil.

The earliest above ground symptom of clubroot is wilting of the leaves of infected plants particularly on warm days.

Severely infected plants will be stunted and yield significantly reduced.

The results presented in this report serve as a small snapshot of activities undertaken in the field for the duration of the project.

During this time two new treatments have been developed, reports from individual states have been tested nationally and large numbers of growers have participated in field displays and demonstrations.

The following generalisations can be made:

  • Application of lime as calcium oxide (to increase pH to 7.0-7.5 in responsive soils) is a ‘good value for money’ treatment consistently returning a profit from most field sites nationally.

  • Shirlan (fluazinam) applied at 3 L/ha effectively controls clubroot but must be evenly distributed around the transplant root zone at planting.

    Lower rates (2-3 L/ha) may suffice in the Manjimup district of Western Australia.

  • Banded incorporation of Shirlan (3 L/ha) at planting is the most effective method of application of this fungicide.

  • Banded incorporation of a very low rate of calcium cyanamide has reduced the cost of treatment from $1600/ha to $112/ha.

  • A new fungicide flusulfamide (Nebijin) applied with Du-wett (a wetting agent) has provided good control of clubroot at 0.6 mg/plant in Victoria and Queensland.

    In these states control has been on par with that provided by Shirlan. The effective rate is twice that recommended by the New Zealand based suppliers (the recommended rate being ineffective).

    No residues were found in treated produce and negotiations for registration and distribution in Australia are underway.

    This result was not repeated in Western Australia and the reason for the failure of the product to control clubroot in this state should be further investigated before registration.

Acknowlegements:
Financial support for this research has been provided by: Horticulture Australia Limited, the vegetable growers R&D levy and Stae Departments of Agriculture.

Thanks to the following growers for their assistance with trial work:

Con Ballan Geoff Cochrane Anthony Mason
David Milburn George Sabo Tony Wright
Sam Calameri Tom Winfield Andrew Doran
Mark Kable Kevin Temple Rod Sherriff
Michael Camenzuli WU Yue Fang, ZHONE Cai Xia
Ha Sau Ying XIANG Cai Ji Robert Quirks
Dario Semenzin Harslett farms Greg Widderick

Thanks to the following for their technical assistance on the project:

Josie Lawrence Barbara Czernaikowski
David Tooke Lisa Gibson
Jenny McGough Christina Bakker
Chang You Pan Kevin Lai
Alison Anderson Glenn Geitz
R. Palmer Kathy McLachan
David Richard Duncan Cameron
C. Haase  

Statistical advice by Fiona Thomson and Nam Ky Nguyen (Department of Primary Industries, Vic).


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