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Hangzhou Foods
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
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Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
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Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
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VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber

The current control of insects in capsicum and eggplant crops relies heavily on scheduled applications of insecticides.

For some pests there are few or no registered products, while insecticide resistance is an increasing issue.

This project is a first in an attempt to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems in these crops.

It is based on the relationship between the insect pests and beneficial insects. Other projects have concentrated on developing controls for some of the pests in these crops.

The results from those projects and from personal experience, in working on insects in vegetable crops, have contributed to the final outcomes of this project.

This publication is the final report for project VG00026 “Developing and Implementing Integrated Pest Management Systems for Eggplant and Capsicum” outlining the work undertaken and the outcomes achieved for the Eggplant and Capsicum industries.

John Brown Tony Parker

VG00026 Development and implementation of integrated pest management systems in Eggplant and Capsicum - 2004
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Summary :

In eggplant (Solanum melongena L) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum L) the management practices for insect pests rely heavily on scheduled insecticide applications.

The most important and common insects to both crops are Heliothis [Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)], aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover)] and eggfruit caterpillar [Sceliodes cordalis (Doubleday)].

Other major pests include silverleaf whitefly [Bemisia tabaci type B] that mainly infests eggplant and a number of thrips species [Thrips spp. and Frankliniella sp.]. Other minor insect pests belonging to a number of insect orders also attack these crops.

Successful IPM is based on control options that are economically sound, environmentally acceptable and user friendly, as well as producing a marketable product.

Outcomes from this project showed that scouting methods could determine insect numbers in capsicum crops.

The main part of the plant to sample was the top 1/3 of the plant. By sampling 5 randomly selected leaves per plant with a sample size of 1 plant in 300 plants up to a maximum of 50 plants examined, would give a reasonable estimate of the insect population within that crop.

If all insects were recorded then an average of 0.12 beneficial insects, mainly ladybird beetles, lacewings or parasitic wasps, would control an aphid population with an average of up to 6 per leaf.

Control for Heliothis would be needed if no parasitism was recorded and an average of 5 eggs or 1 larva was counted per 10 plants.

Variations to that number depended on the percentage of egg parasitism by Trichogramma spp. and the number of other beneficial insects that prey on them.

Pheromone trapping for eggfruit caterpillar and Heliothis adults is not a reliable indicator of their activity in the crop.

Research showed that the area to check for eggfruit caterpillar is along the fruit stalk and on the fruit. This is the preferred site for egg laying.

Eggs are white when first laid and develop red stripes down the side of the egg within a day. The larvae burrow into the fruit within a few hours of emerging from the egg.

Results from this project have shown that with this information, an IPM system in capsicum can be successful. This has been demonstrated in study plots, on grower properties and on research stations.

The adoption of IPM system in capsicums has been slow and this has been due to the delay in the publication of the insect booklet.

Without the ability to identify the insect, as a pest or beneficial, it is difficult to adopt and implement an IPM system.

Future development of IPM in capsicum crops should be directed at the involvement of growers in using the crop monitoring technique with the insect identification book.

Integrated Pest Management in eggplant crops has not been successful.

Future work will need to consider softer type controls for the silverleaf whitefly. The development of IPM in this crop maybe possible, if the current release of the introduced parasite is successful.

Recommendations :

With most vegetables the slightest marking on the fruit can make it unacceptable for the market.

Integrated Pest Management systems have been developed in vegetables but their adoption is sometimes slow due to a number of factors.

The price received for a commodity is a major factor. In times of high prices chemical costs are not important in the economic equation but as the price of produce falls, the costs of chemicals becomes important and this is when IPM will start to be adopted.

Integrated Pest Management systems appear complex but aren’t, mostly relying on crop monitoring to gauge insect numbers and adoption of good farming techniques.

These include; having crop breaks, weed control, destruction of old crop residues and use of specific insecticides i.e. biological types for Heliothis.

With the aid of the insect identification book no one should be disadvantaged in undertaking crop monitoring as the old problem of not being able to distinguish insect pests from noninsect pests is removed.

This has been the major stumbling block in the adoption of IPM.

Acknowledgements :

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following organisations and individuals who have contributed to the project :

  • Tony Parker, who provided technical assistance in most of these studies.

  • Manager and staff of the Ayr Research Station who grew and maintained the crops.

  • The growers Joe Zappala, Russel Chapman, Barry Helander and Alvin Thomas who provided crops for the work to be undertaken in.

  • To Iain Kay and Noel Meurant who provided technical comments on the Insect Identification Book.

  • To the staff of the QDPI&F publishing services who offered assistance in the design of the insect guide.

This research was funded by Horticulture Australia and the Department of Primary Industries & Fisheries, Queensland.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.

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July 2015

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