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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG00013 Leek Diseases

Leeks belong to the Allium family and are likely to be prone to similar diseases that attack onions, but little is known about diseases of leeks in Australia..

Diseases have been reported on commercial crops in Australia and the spread of these problems could jeopardise further development of the industry and affect the maintenance of existing domestic and export markets.

The aims of this project were to determine the main disease problems of leeks in Australia, develop management strategies to control these diseases and to ensure that this new information and technology is adopted by the industry.

Authors
Catherine Hitch Liz Oxspring
Trevor Wicks Barbara Hall

VG00013 Managing Diseases of Leeks - 2005
Download 260kb

Summary :

Extensive surveys of leek plantings in Australia identified two main diseases, Fusarium foot rot (Fusarium avenaceum and F. oxysporum) and Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri) as the cause of significant economic crop losses..

Lesser diseases included :

  • Leaf blight (Stemphylium botryosum), while widespread in all states, only caused cosmetic damage.

  • Purple blotch (Alternaria porri) was found in Victoria and Queensland, and while severe infection can reduce marketability most damage was also cosmetic.

  • Others included Smudge (Colletotrichum circinans), Botrytis leaf spot (Botrytis cinerea), Pink root (Pyrenochaeta terrestris) and Oedema (caused by environmental conditions).

  • Viruses including Leek Yellow Stripe, Shallot Latent and Onion Yellow Dwarf were found on leeks in Australia however they were not widespread.

  • Other organisms found associated with infection from Fusarium and Pseudomonas included onion maggot and 3 species of parasitic nematodes

Surveys also showed that seedlings can often be infected with Fusarium without showing symptoms.

All commonly planted varieties were susceptible and trials showed that planting infected seedlings increased seedling mortality and Fusarium infection at harvest.

Bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri was shown to be seed borne in leek seeds planted in Australia.

Preliminary studies showed that soaking seed in hot water eliminated the bacteria from the seed, but the treatment severely reduced germination.

Leek Diseases

Recommendations :

This project has shown that Fusarium foot rot and Bacterial blight are the two most economically important diseases of leeks in Australia.

Seed treatments need to be further evaluated to determine the efficacy of physical and chemical treatments in eliminating pathogens from seed.

Further testing also needs to be done on the use of chemical and biological treatments to reduce or prevent plants becoming infected with Fusarium in the nursery and after planting in the field.

Studies should also continue to evaluate fungicides and spray programs for the control of Alternaria and Stemphylium, as these two pathogens may become more important in the future particularly if there is climate change.

Studies need to be carried out to evaluate seed treatments for the control of bacterial infection in seed, and whether these treatments effect germination.

The spread of bacterial blight in plantings needs to be evaluated and whether different copper formulations can reduce spread and infection levels.

As a results of these studies growers should:

  1. Use disease free seed - from a known source and that has been treated and properly certified as disease free.

  2. Ensure that seedlings are grown in pasteurised or treated soil.

  3. Ensure that seedlings are grown in a “clean” environment.

  4. Obtain seedlings from a reputable source.

  5. Avoid trimming the leaves of seedlings or other operations in the nursery that could spread bacteria through seedling batches.

  6. Drench seedlings with a suspension of prochloraz or carbendazim to reduce the likelihood of soil infection with Fusarium.

  7. Avoid injuring seedlings at planting.

Acknowledgements :

We wish to thank the leek growers of Australia and related industry personnel for participating and being involved in the surveys.

The leek growers in South Australia and Victoria for their co-operation and help in allowing field trials to be conducted on their properties.

A special thank you to the leek growers of South Australia for allowing the extensive surveying of plantings and providing seedlings, especially John Cranwell for all his time, effort and guidance during the course of the project.

All the technical staff at the Plant Research Centre and the Lenswood Research Centre for their help in undertaking this project.

We wish to thank Michael Priest, Dr Ric Cother and Dorothy Noble from the New South Wales DPI for identifying leek pathogens throughout the project.

This project has been facilitated by South Australian State Government and Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) in partnership with AUSVEG and has been funded by the National Vegetable Research and Development Levy.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.


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