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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
Aphids & Viruses
Broccoli Export Seminar
Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
Clubroot - Nursery Cleaning
Clubroot - Nursery Contamination
Clubroot - Nursery Design
Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
Clubroot - Nursery Sources
Hangzhou Foods
IPM - approach to Potato crops
IPM - approach to practice change
IPM - Potato/Tomato Psyllid
Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
Native Plants - Food Standards
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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Vegetable Disease Program

Summaries and key outcomes of four vegetable research projects aimed at managing a range of Foliar and Soilborne diseases of vegetable crops and improving soil health.

These summaries aim to :

  • Inform the vegetable industry of new options developed for managing vegetable diseases and soil health

  • Provide an understanding of how these options can be integrated into a strategy for sustainable vegetable production.

Principal Authors

Ian Porter

Liz Minchinton

Caroline Donald

Oscar Villalta

VG07008 'Improving Soil Health for Yield and Profit in Vegetables'

Soil health management shows economic and environmental benefits

Download Soil Health Brochure
Download 433kb

Researchers at the Victorian Department of Primary Industries are finding that a range of different soil health practices have both environmental and economic benefits to growers.

By measuring biological, physical and chemical properties in soil they are identifying which methods improve soil quality, whilst providing good yields and maximum profit.


  • To date, field trials have demonstrated that profit gains up to $6,000/ha can be obtained by the use of more environmentally-friendly fertilisers and organics.

  • A computer-based tool (‘C-Calc’) has been developed to help estimate the amount of organic matter that is being returned to the soil from different rotations and amendments.

  • A series of information leaflets on use of organic matter and soil health has been developed.

  • Overall the use of organic amendments has beneficial impacts in reducing soilborne diseases, but this effect may vary for different organic materials, soil types, crops and pathogens.

    VG07008 - Summary - September 2010
    • Measuring & Monitoring Soil Health
    • Economic Benefits of Soil Health
    • Effect of Soil Carbon on Disease
    • ‘C-Calc’ - calculates Organic Matter added to soil
    • Soil Health Management Guide

VGO7070 ‘Managing Downy and Powdery Mildew, Anthracnose and White Blister’

Efficacy and economic benefit of control options

Download Soil Health Brochure
Download 315kb


  • Plant resistant varieties.

  • Irrigate crops in the morning to reduce leaf wetness and infection.

  • Manage nutrients as they impact on disease.

  • Use disease forecasting models when cropping susceptible varieties.


  • Growing a white blister resistant broccoli variety increases profits by 22%.

  • Irrigating at 4 am rather than 8 pm, increases profits by 5%.

  • The Brassicaspot models for white blister can increase profits by 25%, especially on white blister susceptible varieties.

  • The BremCast model for downy mildew on lettuce is as good as, or better than, Farm Best Practice or Weekly sprays for contribution to farm profit.
    It can achieve a 6% increase in profit.

VG07070 - Summary - September 2010

    • Resistance to Downy Mildew and Anthracnose in Lettuce
    • Resistance to White Blister
    • Managing White Blister with variety selection and irrigation timing
    • Disease predictive models BrassicaSpot, DownCast & BremCast
    • In-field Spore Test Kit for White Blister
    • Fungicide alternatives
    • Effect of Nitrogen fertilisers on Lettuce Downy Mildew and Anthracnose
    • Economics of control options

VG07125 ‘Managing Soilborne Diseases in Vegetables'.

Rotation with green manure and biofumigant crops
shows disease control & yield benefits

Download Soil Health Brochure
Download 457kb

Researchers at Vic DPI, Qld DEEDI and Peracto are finding that green manures and Brassica biofumigant crops provide many benefits within vegetable cropping systems.

Information from trials including the agronomic characteristics of these crops, their biofumigant potential, effects on key soil health parameters and compatibility with current cropping systems is being used to develop new strategies for managing soil-borne diseases in vegetable production.


  • Crop rotation strategies can reduce inoculum of soilborne pathogens by
    breaking the disease cycle, biofumigation activity (e.g. mustards) and/or improving soil health.

  • Biofumigant crops with the highest levels of isothiocyanate (ITC) producing
    glucosinolate (GSL) compounds were more effective for pathogen control.

  • In-field effects of Brassica biofumigant crops include excellent weed
    suppression, a reduction of root rots in green beans and lettuce drop and
    an increase in the fresh weight of spring onions.

  • Biofumigant crops should be pulverised before incorporation into moist soil to
    ensure biofumigant compounds are released into the soil.

  • Some green manure crops showed other soil benefits including increased
    organic matter, nitrogen and soil biological activity.

    VG07125 - Summary - September 2010
    • Identifying Biofumigant Crops with Anti-fungal Activity
    • Effect of Green Manure and Biofumigant Crops on Disease, Yield and Soil Health
    • Crop Selection and Growth
    • Cultivation and Incorporation
    • Grafting
    • Disruption of Fungal Resting Structures
    • Fungal Derived Volatiles
    • Plant Derived Compounds

VG07126 'Managing Sclerotinia Diseases in Vegetables'

New management strategies for lettuce drop and white mould of beans

Download Soil Health Brochure
Download 291kb

Researchers at DPI Vic, Peracto Pty Ltd, TIAR/UTAS and Qld DEEDI have worked together to investigate and develop multiple management options for Sclerotinia, using lettuce and green bean as model crops,

The long term aim of this research is to identify effective control measures and beneficial cultural practices for managing Sclerotinia which can be integrated into IPM and Best Management Practice (BMP) programs for sustainable production of vegetables in Australia.


  • For effective and durable Sclerotinia control it is better to integrate a number of methods including rotation, cultural practices, disease prediction and fungicides.

  • New management options developed to improve the control of Sclerotinia diseases.

  • New fungicide treatments for lettuce drop and bean white mould and a plant-derived soil treatment to reduce disease carry-over.

  • New biofumigant crops identified with high levels of anti-fungal compounds effective against Sclerotinia pathogens.

  • Methods developed to predict the risk of white mould before sowing, during the
    growing season and before harvest.

    VG07126 - Summary - September 2010
    • About Sclerotinia
    • Management with Fungicides
    • Managing Disease Carry-over
    • Cultural Control Options
    • Methods to Predict Risk of White Mould


This publication covers research conducted as part of Horticulture Australia’s IPM Vegetable Disease and soil health programs.

The following organisations and people are gratefully acknowledged for their contribution to this research: grower collaborators and consultants, in Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland and many researchers and support staff.

VG07125 ‘Best-practice IPM strategies for control of major soilborne diseases of vegetable crops’

Caroline Donald, Cassie Scoble, Ian J Porter, Scott Mattner, Ross Mann, Oscar Villalta, David Riches, Denise Wite (DPI, Victoria), Cherie Gambley (Agri-Science Queensland, DEEDI), Barry Condè and Mark Traynor (NTDR), Len Tesoriero and Leanne Forsyth (NSW I&I), Alicia Greenhill and Kim Plummer (La Trobe University).

VG07126 ‘Integrated Management of Soilborne Pathogens – Sclerotinia’

Oscar Villalta, Denise Wite, Caroline Donald, Cassie Scoble, David Riches, Ian J Porter (DPI, Victoria). Frank Hay and Suzie Jones (TIAR/UTAS Tasmania), Hoong Pung and Susan Cross (Peracto Pty Ltd, Tasmania), John Duff (Agri-Science Queensland DEEDI).

VG07070 ‘Benchmarking predictive models, nutrients and irrigation for management of Downy, Powdery Mildews and White Blister’

Elizabeth Minchinton, Joanna Petkowski, Desmond Auer (DPI, Victoria). Dr Victor Galea and Zaiton Sapak, The University of Queensland. Dr Alison Wakeham and Dr Roy Kennedy of Warwick HRI UK. Lindsay Trapnel. Dr Belinda Rawnsley, Barbara Hall and Lee Bartlett of SARDI Dr Chrys Akem and Dr Gerry MacManus of AgriScience DEEDI Queensland.

VG07008 ‘Benchmarking soil health for improved crop health, quality and yields in the temperate Australian vegetable industries’.

Ian J. Porter, Scott Mattner, Robyn Brett, Belen Guijarro, Jacky Edwards (DPI, Victoria). Nick O’Halloran, Peter Fisher, and Siggy Engleitner.

Horticulture Australia    AUSVEG     Department of Agriclture, Fisheries and Forestry
Biosciences Research - DPI Victoria

HAL projects are funded by the National Vegetable Research and Development Levy in partnership with AUSVEG and participating state government departments and other organisations.

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL’s R&D activities.

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