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Hangzhou Foods
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
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Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
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Tobamoviruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
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VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
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VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
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VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
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VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
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VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
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VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
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VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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Reclaimed water use in Victoria

The vast majority of Victoria’s population resides in the greater Melbourne area and, thus, most wastewater is managed by Melbourne Water through the Western Treatment Plant at Werribee and the South Eastern Purification Plant at Carrum.

However, many smaller cities and towns also increasingly face the need to reduce discharge into the marine environment (principally bay and ocean outfall) and freshwater environments through land application or other forms of reuse.

Authors
Ken Peverill Robert Premier
Daryl Stevens - Editor

Reclaimed water use in Victoria - 2006
Download 111kb

Historical perspective :

The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works (MMBW) commenced operation in 1891, and by 1897 the Main Outfall Sewer from Melbourne directed sewerage to the Board’s farm at Werribee for treatment prior to the treated effluent being discharged into Port Phillip Bay.

Part of this treatment process included land filtration and grass filtration through overland flow. Since 1900, cattle and sheep have grazed the effluent-treated pastures. After paddocks have drained fully following irrigation, livestock are introduced until the next irrigation is due.

A presentation in 1978 on the utilisation of wastewater at Werribee discussed the ‘effective and economic use of wastewater by land filtration, grass filtration (overland flow) and lagooning’. This report also described research underway to determine the practicability and economics of using treated effluent for irrigation of high value agricultural and horticultural crops including cereal and oilseed, forage crops and various vegetable rotations.

In 1975, the South Eastern Purification Plant was commissioned at Carrum to service the eastern and southern parts of greater Melbourne leaving the Werribee Farm to service the other needs of Melbourne.

At the South Eastern Purification Plant the wastewater is treated by an activated sludge process and the secondary treated effluent is principally discharged into Bass Strait at Boag’s Rocks near Cape Schank.

Some diversion of the secondary treated effluent has been directed onto areas of recreational turf (eg golf courses, parks and gardens) and some market gardens. Restrictions on market gardening use ensured that the reclaimed water (Class C) did not come into direct contact with produce that may be consumed raw.

Summary :

In Victoria, treated wastewater has been used in agricultural production systems for more than 100 years at the MMBW farm at Werribee.

In more recent times, secondary treated wastewater from authorities such as the South Eastern Purification Plant at Carrum, and Barwon Water at Black Rock Sewage Treatment Plant, has been successfully demonstrated to be safe for use in some vegetable production.

However, even though low risk uses of secondary treated effluent have been identified and access to these wastewaters is assured, the rate of acceptance of this option by industry has not been great relative to the volume of wastewater available.

Now there are clear and safe guidelines for the various classes of reclaimed water (wastewater), there is scope for a vast increase in the use of reclaimed water for agricultural and horticultural production.

With the increasing price of high quality irrigation waters and progressive water shortages to meet the increasing demands for agricultural and horticultural production, it is anticipated that reclaimed water will be seen as an increasingly viable option for profitable and environmentally sustainable production.


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