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Hangzhou Foods
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
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NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
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Summer Root Rot in Parsley
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Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
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VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
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VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
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VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
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VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
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VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
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VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
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VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
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VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
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VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
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VG04015 Benchmarking water use
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VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
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VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
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VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
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VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
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VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
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VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
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VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
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VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
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VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
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VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
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VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
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VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
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VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
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VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
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NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension

Downy mildew is a major disease of seedlings in nurseries, especially of pansy, brassicas, stock, alyssum, lettuce and poppy and of the shrubs, hebes and roses. I

ntegrated management strategies, including fungicide treatments, were developed through two recently completed Horticultural Research and Development Projects (NY97011 and NY9406).

The aim of the work reported here was to facilitate the adoption of the research by the nursery industry through a series of seminars, workshops, conferences, nursery visits and various published media.

A second part of this project generated data on a phosphonate fungicide, to assist Agrichem Pty Ltd in obtaining registration of the fungicide for use in the nursery industry.

Elizabeth Minchinton Paul Pierce
Graham Hepworth

Technology Transfer of Integrated Control of Downy Mildew on Nursery Seedlings
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The earlier project (NY9406) identified the fungicide as giving good control of downy mildew on cauliflower and stock seedlings.

Six seminars on management of downy mildews in nurseries were delivered at workshops, Annual General Meetings or Conferences, to nurserymen in Western Australia, Tasmania, South Australia, New South Wales (Sydney), New South Wales (Northern Rivers) and Victoria.

Several nurseries in each state were visited during the seminar program.

Discussions were held with either management or the leading hands on downy mildews in their nurseries and control strategies for the disease.

The booklet 'Downy mildew on nursery plants' and the seminar handout 'Downy mildew management in nurseries' were given to each of the 23 nurseries visited.

There was a wide range in the level of downy mildew on nursery seedlings within a state. Some nurseries had major downy mildew problems, some had moderate problems whilst others had no downy mildew diseases.

The latter were already using integrated management strategies (environmental management with fungicide protocols) to control the disease.

One nurseryman reported that he had changed his watering times and no longer had a downy mildew problem on his seedlings. Another, who grew hebes, improved his hygiene practices, adopted the integrated management strategies and reported that he had controlled the disease on hebes.

Downy mildew on lisianthus was identified as an emerging problem in the nursery and cutflower industries. Downy mildew was not detected on pansies in South Australia. The South Australian Research and Development Institute do not have pansies recorded as a host of downy mildew. Consequently, importation of pansy seedlings into South Australia from other states should be viewed with concern for fear of introducing the pansy downy mildew disease into the state.

A systemic phosphonate fungicide was trialed as a fortnightly drench treatment on cauliflower, pansy and stock seedlings and on potted roses against the standard mancozeb treatment applied weekly. The phosphonate treatment was as effective or better than the mancozeb treatment depending on disease pressure.

When disease pressure was high a combination of both phosphonate and mancozeb gave better control than either treatment alone. The phosphonate treatment was phytotoxic when applied as a drench to the potted roses but not when applied as a spray to rose cuttings.

The data from these trials is being used by Agrichem Pty. Ltd. to obtain registration of the fungicide as a downy mildew control through the National Registration Authority.

A review of blue igloo film cover, indicates that in some parts of Australia, it may have potential to reduce the impact of downy mildew diseases.

Recommendations :

  1. Nurserymen can be encouraged to implement the integrated management strategies to control downy mildew on nursery plants, especially once the systemic fungicide is registered.

  2. There is a need to train nurserymen and their staff on fungicides, fungicide groupings, spray application and calibration of spray equipment.

    It is strongly suggested that all nurseries should have the AVCARE brochure on fungicide groupings and a member of staff familiar with its interpretation.

  3. Operators in some nurseries may benefit from courses in business management as they expand from a family business to a small business operation.

    It was noticeable that some nurseries were better organised than others and that some staff were better trained than others.

  4. Basic hygiene practices in nurseries, which applies to all planting material, could do with a periodical revision for all nursery staff.

  5. The usefulness of blue igloo film covers for reduction in the incidence of downy mildew needs to be resolved.

  6. The Northern Rivers Branch of the NIANSW appeared to be very well organised and the group as a whole appeared to readily exchange information.

    They had produced a nice glossy booklet of nurseries in the region, which would make location very easy for wholesalers, retailers and the public.

    This approach could perhaps be used as a model for other regions.

Acknowledgements :

The authors thank the Nursery Industry Association of Australian, the Horticultural Research and Development Corporation and Agriculture Victoria for financially supporting the project.

The Nursery Industry Association of NSW, the Nursery and Landscape Industry Association of South Australia, the Nursery Industry Association of Western Australia, the Nursery Industry Association of Tasmania, the Nursery Industry Association of Victoria and the Queensland Nursery Industry Association are thanked for their support of the project.

The authors thank the industry development officers Ian Atkinson, Anne Frodsham (SA), Richard Stephens (NSW), Sandy Pate (WA), John McDonald (Qld) and Greg King (Vic), the state secretary Colin Fleming (Tas), the NIAA training officer Greg McPhee, Denis Cook the secretary of the Northern Rivers Branch of NIA of NSW, Chris Douglas president of the Tree and Shrub Growers Association of NSW, Des Leeke of the Tube Growers Association and Domenic Cavallaro Horticultural Consultant for the opportunity to present results of the project to industry and for assistance with organising nursery visits.

Nursery management and staff at the various nurseries visited during the project are thanked for making the time available to discuss downy mildew in their nurseries.

Also scientists visited during the project are thanked for their helpful discussion.

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