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AIFST Fresh Produce Food Safety Summit
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Carabid beetles as sustainability indicators
Clubroot - Nursery Access
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Clubroot - Nursery Monitoring
Clubroot - Nursery Response
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Hangzhou Foods
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IPM - approach to practice change
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Lettuce Anthracnose Management
Native Plants - Food Safety
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NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - factsheet
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - report
NY9406 Downy Mildew on seedlings - review
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - extension
NY97011 Downy Mildew on seedlings - notes
Parsley Disease Handbook
Parsnip Variety Trials
Phytochemical composition of food
Phytochemicals and Healthy Foods
Reclaimed water - risk model
Reclaimed water use in Victoria
Recycled Water Quality - Lettuce
Sclerotina - Lettuce Conference 2002
Strategies for Control of Root Rot in Apiaceae Crops
Summer Root Rot in Parsley
Thrips & Viruses
Vegetable Disease Program
Vegetable Diseases in Australia
Vegetables Viruses
VG00013 Leek Diseases
VG00016 Environmental Performance
VG00026 IPM Eggplant & Cucumber
VG00031 Peas - downy mildew & collar rot
VG00031 Peas - Downy Mildew - metalaxyl resistance
VG00034 Capsicum & Chillies - weed control
VG00044 Clubroot - Applicator design
VG00044 Clubroot - Chemical control
VG00044 Clubroot - Implementing a control strategy
VG00044 Clubroot - Managing outbreaks
VG00044 Clubroot - Nutritional amendments
VG00044 Clubroot - Strategic application
VG00044 Clubroot – Introduction
VG00044 Clubroot – Limes and liming
VG00044 Clubroot – Prevention & Hygiene
VG00044 Clubroot – Understanding Risk
VG00044 Total Clubroot Management
VG00048 Alternate fungicides for sclerotinia control
VG00048 Brassica green manure conference paper 2004
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 16
VG00048 Brassica Green Manure Update 18
VG00048 Diallyl Disulphide - DADS - trials
VG00048 Lettuce - Sclerotinia biocontrol
VG00048 Lettuce Sclerotina - Biocontrols
VG00058 Pea - Collar Rot
VG00069 Cucumber & Capsicum diseases
VG00084 Beetroot for Processing
VG01045 Bunching Vegetables - disease control
VG01049 Compost - Benefits
VG01049 Compost - Choosing a Supplier
VG01049 Compost - Getting Started
VG01049 Compost - Introduction
VG01049 Compost - Safe Use
VG01049 Safe Use of Poultry Litter
VG01082 Broccoli Adjuvant Poster
VG01082 Broccoli Head Rot
VG01096 Article - White Rot research
VG01096 Integrated Control of Onion White Rot
VG01096 Poster - Alternative fungicides
VG01096 Poster - Diallyl Disulphide - DADS
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma biocontrol
VG01096 Poster - Trichoderma optimisation
VG01096 White Rot - Spring Onions
VG02020 Capsicum - Sudden Wilt
VG02035 Capsicum - virus resistance
VG02105 Vegetable Seed Dressing Review
VG02118 White Blister
VG03003 Lettuce - Varnish Spot
VG03092 Lettuce - Shelf Life
VG03100 Retailing Vegetables - Broccolini®
VG04010 Maximising returns from water
VG04012 Hydroponic lettuce - root rot
VG04013 Brassica White Blister
VG04013 White Blister - Control Strategies
VG04013 White Blister - Race ID
VG04013 White Blister - Risk Forecasting
VG04013 White Blister - Symptoms
VG04013 White Blister - Workshop Notes
VG04014 Better Brassica
VG04014 better brassica - roadshow model
VG04014 better brassica - workshop notes
VG04014 Clubroot Guidebook
VG04014 Clubroot Poster
VG04015 Benchmarking water use
VG04016 Celery leaf blight - Poster
VG04016 Celery Septoria
VG04019 Nitrate & Nitrite in Leafy Veg
VG04021 Vegetable Seed Treatment
VG04025 Parsley Root Rot
VG04059 Diagnostic test kits
VG04061 White Blister - alternative controls
VG04061 White Blister - Workshop 2007
VG04062 Beetroot Study Tour
VG04067 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG05007 Onion White Rot - post plant fungicides
VG05008 IPM - Cultural Controls
VG05014 IPM - Native vegetation pt1
VG05044 IPM - Consultants Survey
VG05044 IPM - Grower Survey
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Aphid Trials
VG05044 IPM - Lettuce Disease Poster
VG05044 IPM - Predatory Mites
VG05044 IPM - Project Summary
VG05045 Parsnip Canker
VG05051 Climate Change
VG05053 Rhubarb Viruses
VG05068 Baby Leaf Salad Crops
VG05073 Mechanical Harvesting
VG05090 Green Bean - Sclerotinia
VG05090 Rhizoctonia Groups
VG06014 Revegetation for thrip control
VG06024 IPM - Native vegetation pt2
VG06046 Parsley Root Rot
VG06047 Celery - Septoria Predictive Model
VG06066 LOTE Grower Communications
VG06086 IPM - Potential & Requirements
VG06087 IPM - Lettuce Aphid
VG06087 IPM - Toxicity testing
VG06088 IPM - Lettuce Aphid trials
VG06092 Pathogens - Gap Analysis
VG06092 Pathogens of Importance - poster
VG06140 Beetroot - colour quality
VG07010 Systemic aquired resistance
VG07015 Curcubit field guide
VG07070 Conference Notes 2008
VG07070 Foliar diseases
VG07070 Nitrogen & lettuce diseases
VG07070 Predicting Downy Mildew on Lettuce
VG07070 White Blister - Chinese Cabbage
VG07070 White Blister - Cultural Controls
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2008
VG07070 Workshop Notes - 2010
VG07125 IPM - soilborne diseases
VG07126 Biofumigation oils for white rot
VG07126 New approaches to sclerotina
VG07127 White Blister - Alternative Controls
VG08020 Optimising water & nutrient use
VG08026 Pythium - field day
VG08026 Pythium - workshop 2010
VG08026 Pythium control strategies - overview
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint - workshop
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 1 - definitions
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 2 - issues
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 3 - calculators
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 4 - estimate
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 5 - users
VG08107 - Carbon Footprint part 6 - options
VG08426 Parsnip - Pythium Notes 2010
VG09086 Evaluation of Vegetable Washing
VG09159 Grower Study Tour- Spring Onions & Radish
VG96015 Carrot Crown Rot
VG96015 Carrot Defects - Poster
VG97042 Export - Burdock, Daikon and Shallots
VG97051 Pea - ascochyta rot
VG97064 Greenhouse Tomato and Capsicum
VG97084 Green Bean - white rot
VG97103 Celery Mosaic Virus
VG98011 Carrot - Cavity Spot
VG98048 Lettuce - Adapting to Change
VG98083 Lettuce - rots & browning
VG98085 GM Brassicas
VG98093 Microbial hazards - review
VG98093 Safe vegetable production
VG99005 Quality wash water
VG99008 Clubroot - rapid test
VG99016 Compost and Vegetable Production
VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding
VG99054 Onions - Theraputic Compounds
VG99057 Soil Health Indicators
VG99070 IPM - Celery
Victorian soil health
VN05010 Folicur - alternative carriers
VN05010 Onion White Rot - Fungicides
VN05010 Onion White Rot - summary
VX00012 Metalaxyl breakdown
VX99004 Clean & Safe Fresh Vegetables
Whitefly & Viruses
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VG99030 Globe Artichokes - value adding

This 1999-2001 project showed that value adding (eg. freezing artichoke hearts) is feasible for globe artichoke and, if accepted by processors, would significantly boost local consumption by retail markets and the food service sector.

A cooked and frozen ready-to-heat/eat artichoke product would also be highly acceptable to local and overseas markets.

Given the health benefits and nutritional value of artichokes, export opportunities would also be enhanced in the health conscious and expanding Asian markets.

Fouad Goubran Glenn Hale
Soheir Salib Bruce Tomkins

VG99030 Developing strategies to stimulate local consumption, export and import replacement of globe artichokes
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The volume and variety of vegetables offered to Australian consumers have increased dramatically over the last 20 years.

However, the production of globe artichoke has remained to a large extent, almost static at between 500 and 1500 tonnes for decades.

This situation reflects limited consumption, which can be attributed to unfamiliarity and/or difficulty in the preparation and use of artichokes.

This is despite the crop's culinary versatility, excellent nutritional value and potential export prospects.

As well as pursuing opportunities to increase local consumption, there is also a need to address export and import replacement opportunities.

Australia is currently a net importer of processed artichoke products to meet consumers' needs and to support a small processing industry that relies on canned artichokes for the production of anti-pasto products.

Such products are marketed locally and/or exported at a much higher price than the imported primary material.

Furthermore, there is a certain lack of vision in addressing the export opportunities and economic consequences of adopting new value adding and marketing strategies that are at the moment untapped by growers and processing firms.

Our investigation showed that the artichoke industry in Australia is small by world standards and consists mainly of traditional family farm units clustered in Victoria where 90% of the annual crop (1300 tonnes) is produced.

Production varies from year to year depending on the number of growers entering or exiting the industry. The bulk of the production is destined for the local fresh market with sporadic exports to hospitality trades in the Asia/Pacific region.

An estimated 700 tonnes of processed artichoke products are imported annually to satisfy mainly the need of a local processing industry.

The reliance on imported material is due to a shortage of local supply and the cheaper prices of overseas products.

However, local processors have expressed interest in buying locally, provided they can be guaranteed a continuation of supply at prices comparable to the imported material.

Besides the possibility of achieving import replacement, our investigation also showed that some value adding concepts such as plain frozen artichoke hearts (ready to cook) as well as cooked and frozen versions (ready to heat and eat) are technically feasible, convenient for consumption and accepted by consumers.

Such concepts, if adopted, would considerably improve the local marketability and increase the export potential of globe artichokes.

Further work is required to bring the value adding concepts reported in this project to realisation and commercial adoption by the processing industry.

Moreover, in order to help achieve this aim, the artichoke industry will need to re-assess its existing local fresh market orientation and re-adjust itself to meet the expected increase in requirements of a local processing industry.

Paramount in this regard will be issues such as introduction of varieties suitable for processing, mechanisation, seasonality and economies of production among other issues.

Despite its small size by world standards, the Australian artichoke industry has the necessary expertise and capacity to expand if these and new market opportunities are exploited to their full potential.


During the course of this study we have received valuable support and advice from many people either directly related to the artichoke industry or other related fields such as, the food service industry, processors, importers and exporters, all of whom contributed generously in time and advice and helped us focus our work.

The assistance and complete co-operation and enthusiasm of all growers of globe artichoke who were interviewed in the Werribee and Keilor districts, particularly Tony and Joe Farranda, Robert Nave and Anthony Senserrick.

Thanks also to Alfred Lazer, Jeff Santa-Lucia, Darren Webb (Marketing Manager, Solutia Australia Pty Ltd).

Thanks also to our colleagues at DNRE for their assistance: Ross Clarke, Fiona Thomson and Stephen Moore.

From the Food Services Operators Industry in Melbourne, Victoria the following are also gratefully acknowledged:

  • Peter McGee, Managing Director, Sundown Foods, Knoxfield.
  • Paul Fleggo, Manager, Pomodoro Brothers Pty Ltd., Airport-West.
  • Malcolm England, Manager, Sevillo Pty. Ltd., Brunswick.
  • Arthur Karas, Manager, The Grill House Pty. Ltd., Campbellfield.
  • Peter McBeth, Managing Director, Marvel Packers Pty. Ltd., Hallam.
  • Paul McBeth, Marvel Packers Pty.Ltd., Hallam.
  • Quinton Wilkinson, R&D Manager, McCain Foods (Australia) Pty Ltd, Ballarat.
  • Daniel Grunfeld, Sales and Marketing Manager, Chefs Pantry, Braeside.
  • Mathew Tee, Chef, Kingson Links Golf Club, Rowville.
  • Con Gryllakis, Restaurant owner, Marketa Restaurant, Hawthorn.
  • Geoff Haverland, Head Chef, Marketa Restaurant, Hawthorn.

During the principal investigators visit to overseas research centres, many people involved in the research and/or the food technology of globe artichoke helped in organising his time table and gave generously of their time.

Special thanks to:

  • Mr. Jean-Michel Collet, CTFJL - France
  • Mr. Jean Corre, INRA - France
  • Mr. Bernard Macre, Dir. Co. Bretonne de L'Artichaut - France
  • Prof. F. Abdel Aziz, Inst, of Agr. Res., Dept. of Agr. T Egypt
  • The late Mr.Ibrahim El-Hessi, Dir. of Extension, Dept. of Agr.- Egypt
  • Mrs. R. Foda, Mktng. Mngr. United Food Ind., Montana-Egypt
  • Mr F El Guretly, Prod. Mngr. United Food Ind., Montana-Egypt

This project was commissioned by Horticulture Australia Limited�and funded by the Vegetable R&D levy and the Victorian State Government..

The Australian Government provides matched funding for all HAL's R&D activities.

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